464 POLITICAL SCIENCE. ,»f from civil as well as ecclesiastical offices by requiring an oath that the queen was " the only supreme governor of the realm and all other her highness's dominions and countries, as well in all spiritual and ecclesiastical things or causes, as in tem- poral, and that no foreign prince, person, prelate, etc., hath or ought to have any jurisdiction .... ecclesiastical or spir- itual, within this realm." The act of uniformity prohibited, under penalty of a fine for the first offence, of imprisonment for a year for the second, and of imprisonment during life for the third, the use by any minister of any but the established liturgy, and laid a fine of a shilling on all who should absent themselves from church on Sundays and holidays.* The Star Chamber, an illegal and arbitrary court, as Hallam calls it, judged in religious cases without being bound by statute law, until it fell in 1641. The corporation act of 1661 enjoined that all magistrates and other officers in trie corporate towns who should thereafter be elected, should be incapable of enter- ing on their duties unless they had received the sacrament within a year before their election, according to the rites of the English church. The test act of 1673 required the recep- tion of the sacrament according to the same rites, and the rejection of transubstantiation, before any temporal office of trust could be enjoyed. The acts against conventicles in 1664 and 1665 were particularly severe on dissenters. The first forbade presence at any religious meeting where at least five persons besides the members of the family should be assem- bled, on penalty, to all persons above the age of sixteen, of three months' imprisonment for the first offence, of six for the second, and of seven years' transportation for the third, after conviction before a single justice of the peace. The other re- quired persons in holy orders who had not subscribed the act of uniformity (z,<?., those who gave up their places in the church after the passage of that act in 1660), to swear that taking up arms against the king on any pretence whatever was unlaw- ful, and shut out any one who should refuse such an oath from * Hallam, Const. Hist, i., chap. 3, p. 153. Compare the same work for the other acts referred to, ii., ch. n, pp. 472-476.